15. Oktober 2021
What Were The Terms Of The Cease-Fire Agreement In Vietnam
(a) The repatriation of captured military personnel and foreign civilians of the Parties shall take place at the same time as the withdrawal of the troops referred to in Article 5 and shall be completed no later than the same day. On the date of signature of this Agreement, the Parties shall exchange complete lists of the above-mentioned captured military personnel and foreign civilians. Even more unusual, the treaty provides for the establishment of a joint quadripartite Military Commission by the four signatories to implement and monitor compliance with the provisions on withdrawal, ceasefire, dismantling of bases, return of prisoners of war and exchange of information on missing persons. An International Monitoring and Surveillance Commission (IASIA), composed of Canada, Hungary, Indonesia and Poland, would monitor the agreement and report violations. In No Peace, No Honor (2001), Larry Berman used recently declassified documents to show that Nixon had little confidence in the Paris Agreement and expected the agreement to be violated, triggering a brutal military response. A permanent war (air war, no ground operations) at acceptable political costs was what Nixon expected from the signed agreement. President Thieu received repeated assurances that if the Communists violated the agreement, the B52 would return to punish Hanoi, but the Watergate scandal prevented such retaliation. The basic elements of the agreement on the end of the war and the restoration of peace in Vietnam, signed on January 27, 1973 at the Paris International Conference Center, provided for the end of the fighting and the withdrawal of American forces. The United States has pledged to end all air and naval operations against North Vietnam and to dismantle or deactivate all mines in North Vietnamese waters. Within two months of signing the agreement, all armed forces of the United States and U.S. allies would leave Vietnam. The U.S. was banned from sending war material or new supplies to South Vietnam, and it had to dismantle all military bases there.
GVN and FLN forces were allowed to remain where they were, but the ceasefire prohibited the introduction of new troops, military advisers, military personnel – including military technical personnel – weapons, ammunition and war material from North Vietnam or elsewhere. The disposition of Vietnamese forces in South Vietnam would be determined by the two South Vietnamese sides in a spirit of „national reconciliation and harmony“. In addition, the agreement required the return of all captured military personnel and foreign civilians within the same two-month period. The two South Vietnamese sides would deal with the return of Vietnamese civilians. The United States and North Vietnam promised to abide by the principles of self-determination of the South Vietnamese people, which included free and democratic elections under international supervision. However, as the number of American casualties had increased throughout the conflict since 1965, U.S. SUPPORT for the war had deteriorated, and by the fall of 1972 there was strong pressure on the Nixon administration to withdraw from the war. As a result, the US subjected its South Vietnamese begn to strong diplomatic pressure to sign the peace treaty, even though the concessions Thiệu wanted could not be obtained. .