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  • 13. April 2021

    The General Agreement On Tariffs And Trade Was Created After The End Of Which American-Involved Wars

    The agreement opened the door to open trade by ending tariffs on various goods and services and implementing equality between Canada, America and Mexico. NAFTA has allowed tariff exemption for agricultural products such as eggs, maize and meat. This has allowed companies to act freely and import and export different products at the North American level. The fourth round returned to Geneva in 1955 and lasted until May 1956. 26 countries participated in the cycle. $2.5 billion in tariffs have been eliminated or reduced. In May 1963, ministers agreed on three negotiating objectives: NAFTA is an agreement signed by Canada, Mexico and the United States to create a trilateral trade bloc in North America. Agriculture has been essentially excluded from previous agreements, as it has been granted special status in the areas of import quotas and export subsidies, with slight reserves. However, at the time of the Uruguay Round, many countries considered the agricultural exception so egregious that they refused to sign a new no-move agreement for agricultural products. These fourteen countries were known as the „Cairns Group“ and consisted mainly of small and medium-sized agricultural exporters such as Australia, Brazil, Canada, Indonesia and New Zealand.

    The GATT has introduced the principle of the most favoured nation into members` collective agreements. In early 1942, U.S. and British officials began to develop proposals that would promote economic stability and prosperity in the post-war world. Harry Dexter White, special assistant to the US Treasury Secretary, and John Maynard Keynes, a British Treasury adviser, have developed plans to create organizations that would provide financial assistance to countries with short-term balance of payments deficits; This assistance should ensure that these countries do not adopt protectionist or predatory economic policies in order to improve their balance-of-payments position. While both plans presented a world of fixed exchange rates that were seen as more favourable to the expansion of international trade than exchange rate fluctuations, they differed on several key points. As a result, from 1942 to 1944, bilateral and multilateral meetings of Allied financial experts were held to agree on a common approach. The July 1944 UNITED Nations Financial and Monetary Conference, a gathering of delegates from 44 nations at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, finally reached an agreement. The two main achievements of the Bretton Woods Conference were the creation of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), commonly known as the World Bank. The IMF has been tasked with overseeing a fixed exchange rate system that focuses on the U.S. dollar and gold and serves as a forum for consultation and cooperation and short-term financial assistance to countries with a temporary deficit balance of payments.

    The IBRD was responsible for financially supporting the reconstruction of war-torn countries and the economic development of less developed countries. In July 1945, Congress passed the Bretton Woods Agreements Act, which authorizes U.S. membership of the IMF and World Bank, and both organizations were formally established five months later.


    Verfasst von Stefan Oberhauser

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